Temple of Edfu or the Temple of Horus of Edfu is located in the Arab Republic of Egypt, in the city of Aswan, 123 kilometers from north of Aswan. It is one of the most beautiful temples in Egypt and is characterized by the magnitude and the splendor of its building. It is dated back to the Ptolemaic era, its construction for Horus began in the reign of Ptolemy III - Iorgits I; Iorgits means benevolent in the year 237 BC, and was completed in the era of Ptolemy XIII in the first century BC.
Legend of the winged Sun: Horus of Edfu had an excellent place in Egyptian mythology as Horus adopted the title the Winged Sun since the the age of the Sixth Dynasty. This legend was inscribed on the walls of the Temple of Edfu, it stated that Ra Hor-em-akhet appointed Horus to vanquish the rebels who revolted against him under the leadership of Set, while cruising in Nubia in the 363rd year of his reign. Horus hunted them from south to north, in the form of a falcon-headed man or a Lion with man's head. He defeated them in several locations in the Nile and in particular Dandara and Fayoum and then tracked them down to Nubia, where he was transformed into a sun with two wings, defeated them and so brought joy to Ra Hor-em-akhet and rewarded him by ordering the winged sun to exit everywhere; upper and lower Egypt. Henceforth, it spread to cover all the gates of temples and turned into a symbol of victory, as well as a symbol of protection to kings and gods and a symbol of the united kingdom of Egypt.
The City of Edfu:
One of the cities of Aswan Governorate, located in the middle of the distance between Aswan and Luxor (north to Aswan and south to Luxor). It is 100 km to the north of Aswan and 60 km to the south of Luxor. It is located on the western bank of the River Nile, about 778 km of Cairo, the tombs of ancient state were found in Edfu. It also contains the temple of Edfu, built for Horus in 237 BC in the Greek era.
It is the capital of the district and the largest local municipality in terms of population and the most important monuments (Temple of Hurus, the Ptolemaic). Its population is about 60285 people.
It was called the town of Edfu, in ancient times, Adbo, Atfo, which means town of food town or intrusion. It is also said that its name is derived from the ancient Egyptian word Juba, changed to Atbo, Adbo or Atfo in Coptic language, where the modern name is derived.
Its ancient religious name was Bahdat or Bahdaity, one of the many local gods named after Horus, known as Horus of Edfu to distinguish him from Horus son of Isis who was symbolized in the form of a falcon; Egyptians commonly mistake between both of them.
In the past, Edfu was the capital of Upper Egypt; it is the conventional location of the legendary battle between Horus and Set.
Its number one god was Horus, Falcon like God, attributed to the town and so called Horus of Bahdaity.
The city of Edfu owes its reputation to its temple, which is one of the most beautiful and perfectly built Egyptian temples as it is fully integrated and teaming with a vast number of the corresponding texts that were made in a very distinct artistic style, isis, one of the warlords of Edfu, who was worshiped for centuries. The walls of the temple documented the legend of the conflict between Horus and Set, and how Hourus Bahdity, represented by the winged Sun defeated Set and his aides. As per the legend Osoris, he was assisted by a number of men who knew the art of metallurgy. His victories were praised by the priests of Edfu and women of Abu Sir in the Delta. He was worshiped Hathor, Lady of Dendera, and married her. Later on, he adopted Smataoy Horus (Horus, the unifier of Egypt) as his son thus forming with Hathor the Trinity of Edfu.