Giza Pyramides or Egypt Pyramides at Giza plateau in the Giza governorate on the west bank of river Nile; they were built about 25 centuries B.C. (2480- 2550); are three Pyramides, namely Khuphu, Khephren and Menkaur.
The pyramids are royal tombs, where each bears the name of king who built it and was buried therein after his death, and the pyramids building here is one of stages of grave architecture development in ancient Egypt, which started with a Small pit, changing to a chamber underground, then to several chambers with a mastabe above them, and thus developed taking the shape of step pyramid by the engineer Imhotep, vizier of Pharaoh Djoser during the 3rd dynasty; the pyramid is found at Saqara cemetery; followed by two attempts by Snofru, the founder of 4th dynasty, to build regular step shap, but the two pyramids appeared out of shape; they are located Dahshor, one of them with a flate base and the Second taking a shape as small as the half of its size; and hemiunu, the engineer of khuphu, could come to the ideal step shape and construct khuphu pyramid at Giza on an area of 13 acre, followed by khephren and Menkaure.
Sphinx has become a symbol for ancient Egypt; it is one of most renowned monuments; Giza Sphinx is the First colossal Statue in ancient Egypt and is carved out of lime rock which was a part of Khuphu Pyramid's quarry; it is about 72 m Long and depicts king Khephren, the constructor of Second pyramid at Giza plateau; it can also symbolize for the god of sun "Horemakhet" with whom the king would unite on death; the statue has abody of lion and its head looks like king khephren's head and features; Sphinx also combines power of the line and intellect of the man; it was considered to be the ideal shape of the king and god himself and is related with the sun doctrine and present the god Horus.
Giza Sphinx is also considered to be the guard of Giza plateau; it was covered through ages by sand which was removed from it several times, and, the most renowned occasions were recorded on the " dream tablet" in front of sphinx directly, by king Tuthmosis IV (1400-1390 B.C.), describing the promise he received in the dream that he would become a king if he removed the sand from Sphinx.
Sphinx was initially restorated in the reign of 18th dynasty (modern kingdom), and, the anxiety grows about the gradual deterioration of the monument which lost its nose, cobra and sacred beard; and "Geofani Batesta Kafeglya" found a small part of the beard in 1817 A.D and the two fractions of it are now housed amongst the possessions of British museum and Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and, the rise of underground water level causes problems at the present time and the site is subject to environmental monitoring.
The great pyramid: Khufu pyramid
It is on of the seven marvels of world; it was built about 2650 B.C.; it is considered to be the greatest stony structure in the world, it is ascribed to king Khofu, 4th dynasty. It was built by the engineer hemiunu; the base of pyramid is of Square shape; each side is initially 230 m Long and initially 146 m High.
It now become 134 m; its building angle is 5.51 . It was built by air compression method, It was made up of 2.5 Million Limestone blocks, each weighing approximately 2.5 Tonnes. The Statistics reveal that area of this pyramid holds the parliament and saint paul's cathedral in England; another statistics show that area is sufficient for constructing cathedrals of Florencea, Melano and Saint Paul, and if the stone by which the pyramid was built are cut into pieces with a Square feet's size for each and places side by side, their length would become two thirds of the equator's diameter of globe; Khofu named it "the horizon".The King Khofu
He is considered to be the second king of 4th dynasty; he assumed power after death of his father (snofru); his full name (khanm khwaf-li) namely (the diety khenom who protects me); the scientists believe that he was originally born at the village of (Bani Hassan) Menaat Khufu), namely breast-Feeding mother of Khufu); and several of the important events during his reign aren't known, except that he sent the missions to El-Maghara valley, where his name and picture of his statue were found, attacking a person's head with deadly pin, for bringing the turquoise; he has a sole statue of ivory discovered at Abydos, and his name is inscribed on the throne; the statue is Five Cm in Length and is now housed in the Egyptian Museum; he ruled as per papyrus of touren for about 23 Years, and the great pyramid of Giza is ascribed to him, which is the most colossal stony structure in the world. Khofu named it (Akht Khofu), namely horizon of Khufo.
Second pyramid: Khephren pyramid
It was built by king Khephren in the south west of his father's pyramid, Khufu; it still keeps a part of its garb on its top up till now; it is 143.5 M high and each side of it is 215.5M long. Its inclination angle is 53.10; it is located at ground level.
The entrance leads to descending passage; its ceiling is made up of granite and its angle of inclination is 22◦, ending up with a barricade leading to a horizontal passage, then to a sloping passage leading to a cell named mistakenly the burial; it is empty and is carved into rocks. The corridor leads to another barricade ending up high in a horizontal passage ending up with the burial cell; the ceiling of this cell is made up of Gamalon, constructed with limestones; the cell is almost located in the middle of pyramid. Khefren named his pyramid "The Great"
The 4th king during the 4th dynasty; he married queen 3rd Mereank.
The historian Maniton mentions that Khephren ruled for twenty six years. The second pyramid of Giza is ascribed to him. It is less high than Khufu pyramid; It was initially 143.5 M2 high. It is now 136.5M2 high. It was erected on an area of 125.5M2. The pyramid has two entrances northwards; it still keeps a part of its garb on its top. In the temple relating to its pyramidal group, statues of chist stone were discovered, amongst of which a statue that is considered to be one of the most beautiful product of Egyptian sculpture art, which is housed in the Egyptian museum; carving the sphinx statue is also ascribed to him.
Third pyramid: Menkaure pyramid
It was built by king Menkaure, the son of king Khephren; each one of its side is 5.108M and it is initially 5.66 is height; the angle of its inclination is 51◦ its entrance, northwards, is 4 M above ground level, leading to a falling passage of 31 M long and its inclination angle is small, its ceiling is made up of granite, then to a drift lined with stones, leading to a horizontal passage with three barricades, then to the burial room; a wooden coffin with his name written on it holding his mummy was discovered, which is housed in the British museum. Menkaure named his pyramid "The second"